Job Title

Wentworth Professor


Dartmouth College



Area of Expertise

  • Conflict
  • Gender and constitutions
  • Diversity
  • Customary governance/legal pluralism
  • Human rights
  • Judicial system design
  • Minority issues
  • Participation
  • Power sharing (horizontal/vertical)
  • Religion
  • Security sector



Legislative Voting and Accountability. Cambridge University Press, forthcoming.
Term Limits in the State Legislatures. Co-authored with Richard Niemi and Lynda Powell.
University of Michigan Press. 2000.

Executive Decree Authority. Co-authored/edited with Matthew S. Shugart. Cambridge
University Press. 1998.

Term Limits and Legislative Representation. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Translation: Spanish, Centro de Investigaciones y Docencia Economica (Mexico
City), with new Preface, 2006.

Presidents and Assemblies: Constitutional Design and Electoral Dynamics. Co-authored with
Matthew S. Shugart. Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Translations: Italian: Societa Editrice il Mulino (Bologna) 1995
Chinese: Weber Publishers (Taipei) 2002.
Russian (chs.2,3): Russian Science Foundation (Moscow) 1995.
Polish (chs.2,9): Scholar Wydawnictwo Naukowe (Warsaw) 1996.
Portuguese (ch.5): reprinted in Reeleição: Aprimorando o Sistema
Presidencial Brasileiro. Deputado Mendonça Filho, ed.
Brasília:Câmara dos Deputados, 1998.
Spanish: Editorial del Instituto de Investigaciones Juridicas, Universidad
Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, forthcoming.
Reprintings: Pages 148-166, in Robert Dahl, Ian Shapiro, and Jose Antonio Cheibub,
eds. Democracy Sourcebook. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,


“Competing principals, political institutions, and party unity in legislative voting.” American
Journal of Political Science 51(1):92-107. January 2007.

“Parties and Accountable Government in New Democracies.” Co-authored with Andrew
Reynolds. Party Politics 13(2):255-274. January 2007.

“Primary Elections and Candidate Strength in Latin America.” Co-authored with John Polga-
Hecimovich. Journal of Politics 68(3):530-543. August 2006.

“Las virtudes del sistema binominal” (“The virtue of M=2”). Revista de ciencia política 26(1):226-235 (Santiago, Chile). August 2006.

“Term Limits in the State Legislatures: Results from a New Survey of the 50 States.” Coauthored with Gary F. Moncrief, Richard G. Niemi, Lynda W. Powell. Legislative
Studies Quarterly XXXI(1):105-136. February 2006.

“Insurance for good losers and the survival of Chile’s Concertacion.” Co-authored with Peter
Siavelis. Latin American Politics and Society 47(2):1-22. Summer 2005.
[Spanish version: “Elecciones y la sobrevivencia de la Concertacion.” Estudios
Públicos 90:5-28 (Santiago, Chile). Fall 2003.]

“State-level institutional effects on legislative coalition unity in Brazil.” Co-authored with Gina Yannitel Reinhardt. Legislative Studies Quarterly 29(1):23-47. February 2004.

[Portuguese version: "Impacto das Instituições Estaduais na Unidade das
Coalizões Parlamentares no Brasil." Dados - Revista de Ciências Sociais
46(4):773-804. February 2004.]

“Transparency Versus Collective Action: The Fujimori Legacy and the Peruvian Congress.”
Comparative Political Studies 36(9): 983-1006. Novemer 2003

“The Reelection Debate in Latin America.” Latin American Politics and Society 45(1):119-133. April 2003.

“Discipline, Accountability, and Legislative Voting in Latin America.” Comparative Politics
35(2): 191-211. January 2003.

“Reelecciones presidenciales: pros y contras.” Foreign Affairs en Español (2):77-92. May

“Incumbency and the Probability of Reelection in State Legislative Elections.” Co-authored
with Richard Niemi and Lynda Powell. Journal of Politics 62(3):671-700.
August/September 2000.

“Parchment, Equilibria, and Institutions.” Comparative Political Studies 33(6/7):735-761.
August 2000.

“Legislative Autonomy in New Regimes: The Czech and Polish Cases.” Co-authored with
Frantisek Formanek and Ewa Karpowicz. Legislative Studies Quarterly24(4):569-604.
November 1999.

"Partidos y coaliciones en el Congreso Chileno" Política y gobierno VI(2):365-406. Mexico
City: Centro de Investigaciones y Docencia Economica. September 1999.

"The Impact of Constitutional Choices on the Performance of Presidential Regimes. Journal of
Social Sciences and Philosophy 11(1):93-121. Taipei, Republic of China: Academia
Sinica. March 1999.

"Presidential Agenda Control and Spending Policy: Lessons from General Pinochet's
Constitution." Co-authored with Lisa Baldez. American Jounal of Political Science
43(1):29-55. January 1999.

“Poder executivo de decreto: chamando os tanques ou usando a caneta?” (“Executive Decree
Authority: Calling Out the Tanks or Filling Out the Forms?”) Co-authored with Matthew
S. Shugart. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais 13(37):149-184. June 1998.

"The Effects of Term Limits on State Legislators." Co-authored with Richard Niemi and
Lynda Powell. Legislative Studies Quarterly 23(2):271-300. May 1998.

"Incentives to Cultivate a Personal Vote: A Rank Ordering of Electoral Formulas." Coauthored
with Matthew S. Shugart. Electoral Studies 14(4): 417-439. December 1995.

"Los efectos del ciclo electoral sobre el sistema de partidos y el respaldo parlamentario al
ejecutivo." Estudios Públicos 55: 305-314. Santiago, Chile, 1994.

"Political Shirking and the Last Term Problem: Evidence for a Party-Administered Pension
System." Public Choice 81:1-22. 1994.


“The primary elections ‘bonus’ in Latin America.” Co-authored with John Polga-Hecimovich.
Margaret Levi, James Johnson, Jack Knight,, and Susan Stokes, eds. Mobilizing
Democracy. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Press. Forthcoming 2007.

“Recorded voting and accountability in the United States and Latin American Legislatures.”
Timothy Power and Nicol Rae, eds., Exporting Congress? The influence of the U.S.
Congress on world legislatures. University of Pittsburgh Press. Forthcoming 2007.

“Legislative Organization.” Sarah Binder, Rod Rhodes, and Bert Rockman, eds., The Oxford
Handbook of Political Institutions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2006: 431-454.

“Election Insurance and Coalition Survival: Formal and Informal Institutions in Chile.” Coauthored with Peter Siavelis. Informal Institutions and Democracy: Lessons from Latin
America. Gretchen Helmke and Steven Levitsky, eds. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 2006: 160-177.

“Reformas para mejorar la responsabilidad legislative en America Latina.” Presidencialismo y
parlamentarismo en America Latina. Cesar Arias and Beatriz Ramacciotti, eds.
Washington DC: Organization of American States, 2006:157-162.

“Presidential Versus Parliamentary Government.” Handbook of New Institutional Economics.
Claude Menard and Mary Shirley, eds. Boston: Kluwer Academic Press, 2005.
[Published in Spanish translation as “Presidencialismo versus parlamentarismo.”
PostData: Revista de reflexion y analisis poiltico 11:121-162 (Buenos Aires,
Argentina). April 2006.]

“Political institutions in El Salvador: Proposals for reform to improve elections, transparency and accountability.” La agenda nacional. Ricardo Hausmann, ed. San Salvador, El
Salvador: Fundacion Salvadorena para el Desarollo Economico y Social (FUSADES).

“Presidentialism and Representative Institutions in Latin America at the Turn of the Century.”

Constructing Democratic Governance: Latin America. Jorge I. Dominguez and Michael
Shifter, eds. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003:11-42.
[Spanish edition by Fondo de Cultura Economica of Bogota, Colombia, 2005.]

“Parties and Coalitions in Chile in the 1990s.” Legislative Politics in Latin America, Scott
Morgenstern and Benito Nacif, eds. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002: 222-253.

“Legislative Autonomy in New Regimes: The Czech and Polish Cases.” Co-authored with
Frantisek Formanek and Ewa Karpowicz. D. Roderick Kiewiet, Gerhard Loewenberg, and
Peverill Squire, eds. Legislatures: Comparative Perspectives on Representative
Assemblies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002: 352-383.

"Budget Procedure and Fiscal Restraint in Post-Transition Chile." Co-authored with Lisa
Baldez. Presidents, Parliaments, and Policy. Mathew D. McCubbins and Stephan
Haggard, eds. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001: 105-148.

“Consequences of Institutional Design: Term Limits and Budgetary Procedures in Presidential
Systems.” El gobierno en América Latina: Presidencialismo o parlamentarismo? Diego
Valadés, José María Serna, eds. Mexico City: Univesidad Nacional Autónoma de México,
2000: 167-198.

"Are Women State Legislators Different?" Co-authored with Richard Niemi and Lynda
Powell. Women and Elective Office, Sue Thomas and Clyde Wilcox, eds. NY: Oxford
University Press, 1998: 87-102.

"Institutional Design and Political Party Systems: Aggregate and Individual Level Effects."
Consolidating the Third Wave Democracies: Trends and Challenges, Larry Diamond and
Marc C. Plattner, eds. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997: 67-92.

"Strong Candidates for a Limited Office: Presidentialism and Political Parties in Costa Rica."

Presidentialism and Political Parties in Latin America, Scott Mainwaring and Matthew S.
Shugart, eds. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997: 199-224.

“Appendix: Outlines of Constitutional Powers in Latin America.” Co-authored with Octavio
Amorim Neto and Matthew S. Shugart. Presidentialism and Political Parties in Latin
America, Scott Mainwaring and Matthew S. Shugart, eds. New York: Cambridge
University Press, 1997: 440-460.

"Parties, Incentives, and Term Limits in Costa Rica." Term Limits: Public Choice
Perspectives, Bernard Grofman, ed. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 1996: 321-346.


On Torsten Persson and Guido Tabellini. The Economic Effects of Constitutions. (Cambridge:
MIT Press, 2003). Perspectives on Politics 3(1):193-194. 2005

On Josep M. Colomer, Political Institutions: Democracy and Social Choice (New York:

Oxford University Press, 2001). Perspectives on Politics 1(1):205. 2003

On John B. Londregan, Legislative Institutions and Ideology in Chile (New York: Cambridge
University Press, 2000). Studies in Comparative International Development 36(3): 114-
116. Fall 2001.

On Peter M. Siavelis, The President and Congress in Postauthoritarian Chile: Institutional
Constraints to Democratic Consolidation (University Park, PA: Penn State University
Press 2000). Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 42(4) Winter 2001.

On Nelly Richard’s Residuos y metáforas: Ensayos de crítica cultural sobre el Chile de la
Transición (Santiago, Chile: Editorial Cuarto Propio 1998). Revista de Estudios
Hispánicos 34(3):656-659. October 2000.

On Peter J. Mair’s Party System Change: Approaches and Interpretations (New York: Oxford
University Press 1997). Political Science Quarterly 113(4):725-726. Winter 1998-99.

On Mark P. Jones’s Electoral Laws and the Survival of Presidential Democracies (Notre
Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1996). American Political Science Review
91(3). September 1997.

On Giovanni Sartori's Comparative Constitutional Engineering: An Inquiry into Structures,
Incentives and Outcomes (New York University Press, 1994). Journal of Democracy 7(3).
July 1996.


“Aún es prematuro jubilar al presidencialismo.” Transcription of interview on prospects for
constitutional reform in Mexico, conducted by Pascal Beltrán del Río. Published in the
newspaper Excelsior (Mexico City --
September 14, 2006.

“Chile’s legislative election system actually quite democratic.” The Santiago Times.
( August 19, 2006.

National Public Radio. The Exchange with Laura Kinnoy (NHPR, December 2005). Odyssey
(Chicago Public Radio, November 2004); St. Louis on the Air (St. Louis Public Radio, May

“A Welcome Uncertainty in Chilean Elections.” FOCAL POINT: Spotlight on the Americas.
9(6):2-3. Ottawa: Canadian Foundation for the Americas. June 2005.

“A note on simple models.” PS: Political Science and Politics XXXVII(4):729, October, 2004.

“The organization of executive and legislative authority in a new Iraqi government.” Report
prepared for the National Endowment for Democracy for consideration by members of the
Transitional Law Drafting Committee of the Iraqi Governing Council. January 2004.
Contributions to the Latin America Adviser (Inter-American Dialogue: Washington, DC).

On the pending Chilean presidential and congressional elections, December 9, 2005.

“Legislatures and political accountability.” ReVista: Harvard Review of Latin America.
Cambridge, MA: David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies. Fall 2002: 32-34.
Professional biography of Professor Gary W. Cox (University of California, San Diego).
American Political Science Dictionary, 2nd edition. Charles Lockhart and Glenn Utter, eds.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002: 69-73.

“Assessing the Effects of Legislative Term Limits.” Co-authored with Richard Niemi and
Lynda Powell. Spectrum 74(4):16-18 (Lexington, KY: Council of State Governments)
Fall 2001.

“Reforma política para fortalecer – y fiscalizar – al Congreso.” Punto de Equilbrio 72:48-50
Lima, Peru: Universidad del Pacífico. June-July 2001.

“Term Limits” and “Presidential Electoral Systems.” International Encyclopedia of Elections.
Richard Rose, ed. Washington DC: CQ Press, 2000: 220-224, 306-308.

"Chile: Latin American Proportional Representation or Majority?" International IDEA
Handbook of Electoral System Design, Andrew Reynolds and Ben Reilly, eds. Stokholm:
Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 1997: 93-94

Op-Ed contributions to Los Angeles Times (1994); Christian Science Monitor (1994);
Philippine Daily Inquirer (1998); St. Louis Post Dispatch (2000).

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